Creator/Author:Δελβερούδη, Ελίζα - Άννα
Title:Young people in Greek film comedy (1948-1974)
Title of Series:Historical Archive of Greek Youth
Nr. within series:40
Place of Publication:Athens
Publisher:General Secretariat for Youth
Date of Publication:2004
Nr. of vol.:1 volume
Subject:Mentalities and Behaviour
Spatial coverage:Greece
Temporal coverage:1948-1974
Description:This study originates in the research proposal concerning the image of young people presented in comedy films in the period 1948-1974. The proposal was submitted for inclusion in the Historical Archives of Greek Youth programme in 1995, was approved, and funding was provided for the period 1995-1997. The theoretical basis which underlies the study is that the cinema can act both as a witness and a historical record, helping us to become familiar with major aspects of the society and ideology of the mid-/later twentieth century, including social activities and human relationships. Account is taken of the fact that films involve a process of myth creation, and as a result any social representations pass through a variety of filters, such as stereotyping, the financial goals of the producers, the requirements imposed by the script, the personal opinions of all those involved, etc. The choice of the specific period covered by the research is justified by the changes observed at the beginning and at the end of the period. Based on the existing filmography, I listed the comedies produced in this period, which number 566. I studied 510 of these, using all films available. The book comprises the introduction, two main sections and the conclusion. The first section (From construction to evidence) contains two chapters. The first chapter (Research Focus) describes those areas on which research has focused, while the subdivision entitled Time limits, Material contains information on quantitative aspects of film production and concerns production companies and their particular characteristics. The second chapter (Comedies as historical evidence concerning young people) discusses to what degree I consider it possible to rely on fiction as a source of information about society, human relationships and mentality (Stereotypes and realism). The chapter offers a description of the image of youth and the changes this image undergoes in comedies ( Young people: from the background to centre stage; the age of youth). The second section (Comedy characters, human relationships) contains five chapters ; these examine the position of young people in the family, the ways in which they create and deal with love, their attitude to marriage and setting up a family, their relationship with education and work, and the ways in which they entertain themselves. More specifically, the first chapter ( Young people and the family they come from) examines the significance of the family in the life of young people. The chapter shows that the existence of the family is inextricably linked with the moral standards of young women, while the morality of young men is not influenced by the absence of family. For young girls it is essential that they are under the guardianship of relatives. This offers them protection and safeguards their morals. Girls who are without family must take particular measures to protect their own morals. Girls of dubious morality are never presented within the framework of a family. The term morality here relates exclusively to the girl's sexual relationships and sex life. Girls in films are not supposed to have a sexual relationship with another person before marriage or, if they do so, it should only be with the person that they will ultimately marry. Such limitations are not imposed on young men. For young men, premarital sexual experiences are seen as normal and are encouraged. Social class affects attitudes towards morality. The wealthy allow their daughters greater freedom and attract criticism for doing so, while they also show intense interest in marrying off their son and place great obstacles in the way if their prospective bride does not come from their own social circles. Securing or increasing wealth is their sole concern and no importance is attached to the personality of prospective brides. This contrasts with the situation in the majority of cases when characters are coming from the working class. Certain working-class mothers seek to find their daughters a wealthy husband to prevent them from suffering the same torments they themselves have gone through. Every time it is true love, pure emotions and decency which come out on top. Financial rewards are an essential element of the happy ending to each comedy. Relationships within the family are analysed according to the structure and composition of that family. In this way, it becomes possible to observe the social roles played by parents and children in different combinations. The role of the father as head of the family is indisputable, and in cases where it is challenged, order is always restored in a way that cohesion is brought to the family as well as alignment with social norms. In the absence of a father, the brother is called upon to substitute him. The brother both fulfils the father's obligations and assumes the father's right to control the lives of the female members of the family. Widows only take on the role of leader of the family if there are no male members to do so. The absence of either parent, always the result of that parent's death, affects the family in different ways and affects the offspring differently, depending on their sex. The second chapter (Education) examines images of school or the army and analyses education as a value. Film-makers of comedies appear to consider education to be useful for youth in less affluent families, whilst disposable for the children of the wealthy. Most students are presented as using their study time not to learn or fulfil some higher duty, but for idleness and to avoid work. Higher studies allow them to extend their immaturity and to avoid accepting responsibilities, and do not appear to play any part in helping them obtain more satisfying employment or a better social life. The third chapter examines issues concerning love affairs, marriage strategies and the problems of married life. It is demonstrated that the primary aim in a girl's life is marriage and day-dreaming about it is a constant female activity. Marriage is also the threshold where responsibilities begin and represents the turning point from a carefree life into maturity. Moral rules for love, as far as women are concerned, include premarital virginity, while the issue for men consists in keeping to their promise to marry their girls, especially if they consummated the relation. Young people can meet either at work or at play or via mutual acquaintances. The development of emotional closeness and love, to which is added the mutual agreement to marry, form the foundations of relationships, while "matchmaking" is parodied as an obsolete and unsuitable way to meet someone. Young people are encouraged to get to know one another well and to decide their own futures, while parents usually fail to marry their children off as they wish, in order to satisfy their own interests and plans. The most secure tactic to get hold of the object of one's desire is to provoke jealousy to that person, and young people of both sexes resort to this in order to make the procrastinator decide. But while there are no serious obstacles to the woman going ahead with her marriage plans, other than her morals or the requirement to offer a dowry, the man must have satisfied all his financial commitments towards his own family, if there are any, and he must also have secured the financial viability of the family he will start. The dowry plays a part in helping him to do this, and as the 1960s progress, young people more and more begin to claim a more comfortable life and greater access to consumerism. Thus demand for a dowry increases; dowry hunters, however, are scorned. The ideal spouse is one who can "offer real love" and is able to support his or her partner. The essential criteria for choosing a wife are her youth and beauty, while the woman attaches greater importance to the financial situation of her future husband. His appearance and any age difference —the man is always older— have no negative effect on her choice. Examples of women in films who live with someone without being married, and yet they are not portrayed as immoral, are almost inexistent. In addition, the woman is never responsible for this deviation from the norm — it is always the result of the man's indecisiveness. "Foreigners" or "outsiders" presented as prospective spouses are different from the locals. The majority are Greek émigrés or the children of Greeks who have emigrated. They are always presented as having the naïvety that allegedly typifies the country which has taken them in until their return. The morals of "foreign" women, in particular, as a rule embody greater permissiveness. Thus relationships can grow between the returnee who has come to find a woman from his home country, and the Greek woman, who will be a suitable mother for his children. In comedies, pregnancy outside marriage always ends in the couple uniting and the man undertaking his responsibilities. The oppressive environment, in particular the insistence of the parents on imposing a husband of their choice forces some young women to run away, while some couples elope in order to be able to wed. A love interest between wealthy men and women of dubious morality, whose main aim is money, is also found in comedies. This type of woman also offers men the prospect of premarital or extra-marital relations. The situation for men and women changes radically after the wedding, when different types of problems arise and the couple are called upon to resolve them. What does change clearly is that one partner stops expressing appreciation and tenderness for the other, while suspicion and the discovery of weaknesses come to the fore. A key problem which married women may be called upon to deal with, is infidelity on the part of the husband, while men are faced by a mother-in-law who makes their life difficult and needs to be set right. The third person in the woman's life is always an imaginary person, perhaps a fantasy lover, who plays the part of substitute spouse. Divorce is a threat, as divorced women are easily taken to be dubious in terms of their morality. The existence of children completes the marriage, and so the couples whose marriage is facing problems are those who have not yet had children. Allusions to male homosexuality are not absent, with actors' performances often marked by the exaggerated use of typically feminine characteristics, such as the voice, movements and gait. Certain actors specialise in playing such —supporting— roles, though it is worth noting that when leading actors take such roles, they exploit any available opportunity afforded by the script to emphasise their masculinity outside the story. The fourth chapter (Work) discusses the professions of young people, and is divided into two parts, depending on the gender. The ideal situation for both sexes as far as work is concerned is to own their own business. Men from lower social classes may have succeeded in setting up their own store, a barber's shop or a local tavern, from which they could earn their daily living. The greater popularity of the motor car multiplied the numbers working in associated jobs, for example the driving instructor or the staff at a garage or petrol station. Private and public employees find it difficult to get by on their wages and dream of "selfemployment", which would allow them to improve on their lives. The capital city is a powerful magnet, not just for provincials who have decided to find alternative employment there, but also for those who, while they already have plenty of assets, are willing to sacrifice them to live somewhere they believe will offer them a higher quality of life. Only a very small number are disappointed, turn to the job market abroad and emigrate. The children of factory owners or of those with flourishing business are not always ready to undertake responsibility, preferring living on handouts from their fathers and spending their lives having a good time. On the other hand, young people who do want to work or play a part in the family business, usually come up against their father's views — their specialised university studies turn out to be of no advantage compared with the father's experience. They follow the progress in the modern age and understand market demands, but there is no chance of the father risking any change of balance within the company. Ultimately a compromise is proposed ; the elders retain their position as the brains of the organisation, while youth contributes by providing its dynamism. Certain specialised professions (doctor, lawyer) are characterised by a cautious nature which results from the training and the study required. Those young people who undertake such jobs are presented as loners, with reduced or even inadequate contact with the outside world. Those who have come from lower class families and managed to study earn greater respect from scriptwriters. In addition, in the few films where they appear, secondary school teachers are treated with respect and are allowed to come to understand that they deserve better treatment from the State (higher salaries) and from their students. Jobs relating to entertainment (actors, singers, writers) are familiar areas of work for film-makers and so frequently feature in films. Young artists find it difficult to get started in their career and live on low wages. Painters go hungry and are felt to be more like eccentric amateurs rather than professionals. Any tendency they show towards modern art is interpreted more as an inability to adopt classic art forms rather than as a conscious artistic choice. Here, too, a certain reservation is evident towards western culture, such as fine arts. Unemployed young people frequently appear in comedies. Unable to find proper employment, they pick up what work they can, doing menial jobs or drifting idly around, securing a place to stay and a bite to eat by telling innocent lies and employing every type of comic scam. The stereotype here is that of a comedy duo or trio, who provide the comic relief via their adventures, but whose real role is to help two lovers become a couple. The offspring of many rich families often do not work, as they have no need to do so. These characters form a small category of men who do not have sufficient respect for the normal rules of society; they do not gain much respect from film-makers. Women's jobs are clearly different from men's jobs over time. During the 1950s, young working women were always from lower social classes who worked in "traditional" women's jobs — seamstresses, assistants in hat shops, secretaries, sales girls. Female manual workers are rare, whereas there is an abundance of maids, which we come across in every middle class household on screen. At the end of the decade, some new jobs make an appearance, such as models or hotel receptionists, while a little later women seem to acquire more courage and daring and begin to take the initiative in the professional world. Nevertheless, women never invest in their work, but use it rather as a means to make a dowry or to survive until they get married. Once married, they abandon their career, as it is considered the husband's duty to support his wife. Girls are always employees and do not appear as business owners until the early 1970's. They are not considered capable of being so. If they inherit a factory or business from their fathers, they must find a husband who would be suitable to run it. Women in specialised professions can be counted on the fingers of one hand and are treated with greater suspicion than their male colleagues. The question which dogs them is whether they can succeed equally well as men. If they dare to try and succeed accordingly, then they lose their femininity and neglect their female role, which would be the equivalent of becoming abnormal. They run the risk of remaining unloved, or of driving their man into the arms of a more attentive woman. Women artists too are different from their male counterparts, as the issue of morality once again is raised. The work place (theatre, cinema, nightclub, cabaret) does not influence the woman's morality. It appears that morality is exclusively the result of choices made by the woman herself. If the woman works in an artistic profession solely to survive, then she is utterly moral. Only women who are seeking a wealthy lifestyle will allow themselves to be kept by their men. However, women frequently suffer an unprovoked sexual assault by their bosses, which thereafter obliges them to become unemployed and endure a difficult life. The fifth chapter (Free time) looks at what young people do in their free time, which is devoted to leisure. A considerable proportion of film time is taken up with images of entertainment and characters having fun. Young people in particular dedicate their free time to sport, cars and motorbikes and above all to having a good time in places with music. Changes of how people entertain themselves are evident and fashion is presented in detail. The main changes which have taken place relate to musical tastes, how people have fun at home (parties) and new sports (water sports, tennis and motor racing). Holidays too, are becoming an ever more frequent element, as is tourism, with scenes shot at famous sites in the capital, in regional Greece and abroad. Few young people are shown devoting their free time to reading or to fine arts, and people who are involved with the arts are usually depicted as wasters or as people who are as eccentric as artists. It can be concluded that issues can be related to three main areas —interaction between parents and children, social class and gender. Young people's relations with their parents constitute an important element in a large number of comedies and deserve detailed comment. We can detect changes over time, but when there are clashes, neither side comes out as the clear victor. Although at the turn of the '60s young people began to demand their rights and compete on equal terms with their elders, there are frequent film examples of this period of the father's being forced to impose his opinion. By doing so, he keeps the family together and protects the happiness of its young members. Mothers do not seem to be equally able to steer their children towards happiness, although the mother is considered an essential figure when children are being raised. Comedies portray the societal virtues of the middle and lower class strata of society into which the film-makers themselves had originally been born. The wealthy have different value codes, displaying an exaggerated interest in money. They do not seek employment, preferring instead to enjoy themselves since they can afford to. Young men and women who fall in love with someone from a lower social class, however, change. Via marriage, they come to accept the values held dear by those within that lower social stratum. Love bridges the social divide and it is through love that rich young men and women come into contact with the "true" values of social usefulness, work, fidelity and devotion.
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5. Ντίνος Ηλιόπουλος, Άννα Συνοδινού. Θανασάκης ο πολιτευόμενος, 1954. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

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8. Γεωργία Βασιλειάδου, Γκέλυ Μαυροπούλου. Η θεία από το Σικάγο, 1957. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

9. Βασίλης Μαυρομμάτης, Σμάρω Στεφανίδου, Τόλης Βοσκόπουλος. Ο Αριστείδης και τα κορίτσια του, 1964. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

10. Νέλλη Παππά, Νίκος Ρίζος, Ντίνα Τριάντη, Θανάσης Μυλωνάς. Της κακομοίρας!, 1963. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

11. Φαίδων Γεωργίτσης, Μπέτυ Αρβανίτη. Νύχτα γάμου, 1967. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

12. Ξένια Καλογεροπούλου, Γιώργος Κωνσταντίνου. Γάμος α λα ελληνικά, 1964. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

13. Γιώργος Κωνσταντίνου, Ξένια Καλογεροπούλου. Γάμος α λα ελληνικά, 1964. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

14. Νίτσα Μαρούδα, Κώστας Χατζηχρήστος. Ο άνθρωπος που γύρισε από τα πιάτα, 1969. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

15. Βασιλάκης Καΐλας, Μάρω Κοντού. Οικογένεια Χωραφά, 1968. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

16. Ορέστης Μακρής, Αλίκη Βουγιουκλάκη. Το ξύλο βγήκε απ' τον παράδεισο, 1959. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

17. Νίκος Σταυρίδης, Νίκος Βασταρδής, Γιάννης Ιωαννίδης. Έλα στο θείο, 1950. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

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19. Αλέκα Κατσέλη, Κώστας Καζάκος. Η αρπαγή της Περσεφόνης, 1956. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

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21. Θανάσης Βέγγος, Σταύρος Ξενίδης. Αστροναύτες, 1962. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

22. Κώστας Βουτσάς, Θανάσης Βέγγος. Αστροναύτες, 1962. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

23. Νίκος Ρίζος, Κώστας Βουτσάς. Τον αράπη κι αν τον πλένεις, το σαπούνι σου χαλάς!, 1973. Αρχείο Μουσείου και Κέντρου Μελέτης του Ελληνικού Θεάτρου.

24. Βούλα Χαριλάου, Κατερίνα Γώγου. Άντρας είμαι και το κέφι μου θα κάνω, 1960. Αρχείο Μουσείου και Κέντρου Μελέτης του Ελληνικού Θεάτρου.

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26. Βαγγέλης Σειληνός, Βιβέτα Τσιούνη. Αυτό το κάτι άλλο, 1963. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

27. Βασίλης Αυλωνίτης, Μαίρη Χρονοπούλου. Το τεμπελόσκυλο, 1963. Αρχείο Μουσείου και Κέντρου Μελέτης του Ελληνικού Θεάτρου.

28. Δέσποινα Στυλιανοπούλου. Η ταξιτζού, 1970. Αρχείο Μουσείου και Κέντρου Μελέτης του Ελληνικού Θεάτρου.

29. Καίτη Παπανίκα, Σταύρος Ξενίδης. Ένας τρελλός ... τρελλός αεροπειρατής, 1973. Αρχείο Μουσείου και Κέντρου Μελέτης του Ελληνικού Θεάτρου.

30. Τάσος Γιαννόπουλος, Άννα Παϊτατζή, Νίκος Σταυρίδης. Ο διαιτητής, 1963. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

31. Κώστας Χατζηχρήστος, Γιάννης Γκιωνάκης. Τζιπ, περίπτερο κι αγάπη, 1957. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

32. Γιώργος Πάντζας. Αυτό το κάτι άλλο, 1963. Ανατύπωση από το Γρηγόρης Γρηγορίου, επιμ. Δημήτρης Χαρίτος, 37ο Φεστιβάλ Κινηματογράφου Θεσσαλονίκης, Π.Ε.Κ.Κ., Αιγόκερως, Αθήνα 1996.

33. Γιάννης Γκιωνάκης, Γιώργος Καμπανέλλης, Μάρθα Καραγιάννη, Θανάσης Βέγγος. Ο θείος από τον Καναδά, 1959. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

34. Κώστας Χατζηχρήστος, Νίκος Φέρμας. Ο ταυρομάχος προχωρεί, 1963. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

35. Ανδρέας Μπάρκουλης, Νόρα Βαλσάμη, Ρένα Βλαχοπούλου, Βασίλης Τσιβιλίκας, Γιάννης Μιχαλόπουλος. Η θεία μου η χίπισσα, 1970. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

36. Ντίνος Ηλιόπουλος. Ο πύργος των ιπποτών, 1952. Αρχείο Γιάννη Σολδάτου.

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1. Νέα στις αρχές της δεκαετίας του 1950. Μίμης Φωτόπουλος, Σμαρούλα Γιούλη, Το σωφεράκι, 1953.

p. 433

2. Μοντέρνα νέα στις αρχές της δεκαετίας του 1960. Άννα Φόνσου. Διαβόλου κάλτσα, 1961.

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3. Παζάρια για το ύψος του μαγιό. Γιάννης Γκιωνάκης, Νίκος Σταυρίδης, Διαβόλου κάλτσα, 1961.

4. Παζάρια για το μήκος του εξώπλατου. Αντιγόνη Κουκούλη, Νίτσα Τσαγανέα, Μίμης Φωτόπουλος, Ο Θόδωρος και το δίκαννο, 1962.

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5. Αδελφικές νουθεσίες. Ντίνος Ηλιόπουλος, Αννα Συνοδινού, Θανασάκης ο πολιτευόμενος, 1954.

6. Υποδειγματική αδελφική αγάπη: η νέα συντηρεί τρία μικρά αδελφάκια και τη γιαγιά. Αθανασία Μουστάκα, Αλίκη Βουγιουκλάκη, Μοντέρνα Σταχτοπούτα, 1965.

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7. Η διαιώνιση της μητρικής εξουσίας στον γιο και τα γελοία αποτελέσματά της. Γιάννης Βογιατζής, Σαπφώ Νοταρά, Σωτήρης Μουστάκας, Το παιδί της μαμάς, 1970.

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8. Νέα όπλα στο κυνήγι του γαμπρού. Γεωργία Βασιλειάδου, Γκέλυ Μαυροπούλου, Η θεία από το Σικάγο, 1957.

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9. Η παρένδυση ξεγελά την πατρική αυστηρότητα. Βασίλης Μαυρομμάτης, Σμάρω Στεφανίδου, Ο Αριστείδης και τα κορίτσια του, 1964.

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10. Εκούσια απαγωγή. Νέλλη Παππά, Νίκος Ρίζος, Ντίνα Τριάντη, Θανάσης Μυλωνάς, Της κακομοίρας!, 1963.

p. 440

11. T« δύσκολα του γάμου αρχίζουν από την πρώτη νύχτα. Φαίδων Γεωργίτσης, Μπέτυ Αρβανίτη, Νύχτα γάμου, 1967.

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12. Στενότης χώρου, μετάλλαξη αισθημάτων. Ξένια Καλογεροπούλου, Γιώργος Κωνσταντίνου, Γάμος α λα ελληνικά, 1964.

13. Μεταμφιέσεις προσώπων και συμπεριφορών. Γιώργος Κωνσταντίνου, Ξένια Καλογεροπούλου, Γάμος α λα ελληνικά, 1964.

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14. Ο μετανάστης και η ελληνίδα σύζυγος. Νίτσα Μαρούδα, Κώστας Χατζηχρήστος, Ο άνθρωπος που γύρισε από τα πιάτα, 1969.

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15. Πολύτεκνη μητέρα. Βασιλάκης Καΐλας, Μάρω Κοντού, Οικογένεια Χωραφά, 1968.

p. 444

16. Ο τυπικός κ. καθηγητής και το ζιζάνιο της τάξης. Ορέστης Μακρής, Αλίκη Βουγιουκλάκη, Το ξύλο βγήκε απ' τον παράδεισο, 1959.

p. 445

17. Η ιδανική επαγγελματική αποκατάσταση: η ιδιόκτητη επιχείρηση. Νίκος Σταυρίδης, Νίκος Βασταρδής, Γιάννης Ιωαννίδης, Έλα στο θείο, 1950.

p. 446

18. Κλονισμός της επιχείρησης. Δικαστικός κλητήρας και κατάσχεση. Θανάσης Βέγγος, Νίκος Σταυρίδης, Περιπλανώμενοι Ιουδαίοι, 1959.

p. 447

19. Μονομαχία του κεφαλαίου με την επιστήμη. Αλέκα Κατσέλη, Κώστας Καζάκος, Η αρπαγή της Περσεφόνης, 1956.

p. 448
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