Creator/Author:Τσερές, Δημήτρης Σπ.
 
Title:Secondary Education in Lefkada (1829-1929)
 
Subtitle:Archive Catalogue of the Middle and High School
 
Title of Series:Historical Archive of Greek Youth
 
Nr. within series:43
 
Place of Publication:Athens
 
Publisher:General Secretariat for Youth
 
Date of Publication:2006
 
Pagination:419
 
Nr. of vol.:1 volume + 1 DVD
 
Language:Greek
 
Subject:Education
 
Education-Secondary
 
Spatial coverage:Lefkada, Greece
 
Temporal coverage:1829-1929
 
Description:This book is based on thorough-going research in the archives, all the material from which is assembled on the CD-Rom that accompanies the book. This material consists of: a) The lists, by school year, of the teaching staff of the Gymnasium of Lefkada (1829-1960) and the Greek School of Lefkada (1866-1929) and the corresponding alphabetical index. b) An alphabetical list of pupils of the Gymnasium of Lefkada (1829-1929) and of the Greek School of Lefkada (1866-1929), which includes their place of origin, the profession of their father, the year of study by grade, age, annual conduct, and end-of-year results of every pupil. There is also a list of pupils by school year, which contains the same information. The search engine makes it possible to identify and search for details from all possible entries in the stored material. The same details have also been uploaded on to the Internet, to the site www.iaen.gr. see documentation. This data is the basis for the texts that constitute the second part of the book, in which numerous details are recorded and correlated relating to the teachers who served in the Gymnasium in the Greek School of Lefkada in the years 1829-1929 and, above all, the pupils who studied at these schools during the same period of time. The first part of the book begins with a short introduction to the history of education in the Ionian islands and the Greek state, which is followed by a "reading" of these texts - that is, an attempted interpretation of the phenomena recorded in them. First, with regard to the teaching staff: The typical qualifications of the teachers at the Gymnasium and at the Greek School, as defined by the responsible state organization for the period 1829-1960, are examined, and it is noted that these qualifications were upgraded with the passage of time. After this, there is an examination of the number and specialities of the teachers who served in the high schools of Lefkada, from which it emerges that their number steadily increases and also that the main weight falls on courses in literature. A difference is detected between the final phase of the Ionian period, which shows a more practical direction, and the period after Unification, which reveals the opposite. Finally, an examination of the place of origin of the teachers leads to the striking conclusion that in the Gymnasium, teachers whose origins were outside Lefkada were more numerous then those who came from the island itself, that is to say, Lefkada does not appear to have produced enough teachers to staff its Gymnasium at this period. In contrast, the majority of the teachers at the Greek School came from Lefkada. With regard to the pupils: Persistent study of the possibility of access to the high schools of Lefkada, and of the progress within the school of the pupils (advancement and dismissal, rejection, interruption of studies) provides sound evidence for the fact that: a) In absolute terms, these magnitudes improve steadily, although at the same time there are occasional, explicable reductions. b) When compared with the percentages in Greece as a whole, the number of pupils in secondary education on Lefkada, despite the occasional decline, increases steadily, and the rate of increase becomes much stronger in the early decades of the twentieth century. This observation contrasts with the position adopted by K. Tsoukalas, that the number of pupils increased steadily in Greece until 1911 and declined from 1911 to 1930. c) The percentages for Lefkada are lower then those for most parts of Greece, on the basis of the evidence cited for them by Tsoukalas. Tsoukalas interprets this difference with the argument that the local landed aristocracy never became reconciled to public education and had the larger part of its children educated privately, or at home - this happened more on Corfu and Zakynthos, where the land-owning system was stronger and better organized and only to a lesser extent on Lefkada and Paxi, where the system was looser. There follows a study of the relationship between the access of pupils to high-school education and their social origins, which suggests that the children of the economically and socially privileged classes — that is to say, the children of landowners, merchants, civil servants, and those who practiced a profession of some prestige (lawyer, doctor, pharmacists, etc) - had greater access. Over time, of course, different trends emerge within this privileged bloc, as well as a rise in the percentage of the socially weaker groups. It is interesting to note that the percentage of children of landowners who studied in high schools is very great - particularly at the Gymnasium. This indisputable conclusion contrasts with Tsoukalas's assertion that Ionian landowners were reluctant to send their children to public high schools. Next, study of the relationship between the access of pupils to high-school education and their gender, reveals clearly that, in general, access for girls was much more difficult than access for boys, for specific economic, social and cultural reasons. However, it was more difficult for girls from poorer social classes who lived further away from the city, that is, daughters of farmers, and also for daughters of landowners and clergy. Certainly the landowners and clergy were negatively influenced by the negative stereotypes of the women, and this emerges more strongly in the case of the Gymnasium. As for the place of origin of the pupils: the existing evidence reveals that pupils from the town of Lefkada performed better then pupils from the countryside, a circumstance that lends further support to the idea that social origins influenced access to high-school education. With the passage of time, however, this gap is reduced and at the end of the period under examination the two magnitudes were in balance (and, if pupils from Akarnania are added, the "peasant" element was clearly in the majority), a circumstance that points clearly to major changes in the economic and social power of town dwellers and villagers. The largest influxes from outside Lefkada were from Akarnania. These were non-existent at the time of the Ionian Republic but increased rapidly after Unification, and have made Akarnania the educational (and other), hinterland of Lefkada down to the present day. The influxes from other parts of Greece are what one would expect: reasonable enough from the Ionian islands (though continuously diminishing), appreciable from nearby Preveza, and few and occasional from other parts of Greece. Finally, an examination of the relationship between social origin and the performance of the pupils shows that there is no direct causal link between the two magnitudes, because in these societies there was systematic pre-selection of those who were to study in high schools: only talented students were selected, who could guarantee a successful high school career, and who were obliged to undergo a series of entrance or grading examinations to enrol in the Greek School. Additionally, new stricter examinations had been instituted by the Greek state for the Gymnasium. This harsh educational "Darwinian selection" did not allow the connection between social origin and school performance to become apparent - though it can easily be seen in the modern age of "mass" education. The third part of the book includes the catalogue of the archive of the Gymnasium of Lefkada (1829-1980) and of the Greek School of Lefkada (1866-1929). From the above it emerges that the book moves at the level of the elaboration of specific quantitative data and rarely penetrates into the "internal structure of the school mechanism" or the "ideological content of teaching". This parameter would only be of interest to the "monograph" of a school if it could identify on Lefkada evidence that indicated the dividing line between the local and the general, either in their convergences or in their divergences. It is well known that thoroughgoing monographs on modern Greek education - that is, studies of the infrastructure based on the archive material of the schools - are rare. This deficiency prevents the historian of modern Greek education from standing on solid ground and testing his research hypothesis. In other words, in the absence of such studies, synthetic works are left hovering in space. From this point of view I believe that the present work is a small yet original and worthwhile contribution not only at the local but also at the national level.
 
License:This book in every digital format (PDF, GIF, HTML) is distributed under Creative Commons Attribution - NonCommercial Licence Greece 3.0
 
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3. Δάσκαλοι και μαθητές Ελληνικού Σχολείου (τέλη 19ου αι.)

4. Καθηγητές και μαθητές του Γυμνασίου το 1900 μπροστά στο κτίριο του

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5. Α' ή Β' τάξη του Ελληνικού Σχολείου, 1924-25 ή 1925-26.

6. Καθηγητές και τελειόφοιτοι μαθητές του Γυμνασίου, 1935-36.

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7. Μετά την παρέλαση της 24-3-1940. Στο προαύλιο τοο Γυμνασίου.

8. Παράσταση του Παπαφλέσσα του Σπ. Μελά, «Πάνθεον», 25.3.1948.

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9. Δευτερεύον Σχολείο: Ο Αθανάσιος Ψαλίδας ζητά διδακτικά βιβλία (1829).

p. 357
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10. Δευτερεύον Σχολείο: «Μαθητολόγιο» σχολ. έτους 1836-37.

p. 358
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11. Δευτερεύον Σχολείο: Εξέταση μαθητών της Α' κλάσης στα Ελληνικά, σχολ. έτος 1842-43.

p. 359
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12. Δευτερεύον Σχολείο: Εξέταση μαθητών της Α' κλάσης στην Άλγεβρα, σχολ. έτος 1844-45.

p. 360
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13. Δευτερεύον Σχολείο: Αγορά διδακτικών βιβλίων από τους μαθητές (1842/43-1852).

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14. Λύκειο Λευκάδος: Βαθμολογικός πίνακας σχολ. έτους 1859-60.

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15. Λύκειο Λευκάδος: Το τελευταίο πρωτόκολλο παράδοσης (1866).

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16. Ελληνικό Σχολείο: Γενικός Έλεγχος σχολ. έτους 1865-66.

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17. Ελληνικό Σχολείο: Γενικός Έλεγχος σχολ. έτους 1867-68.

co σι

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18. Γυμνάσιο: Κατάλογος εισπράξεων, 1867-68, από εγγραφές και έκδοση τίτλων.

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19. Ελληνικό Σχολείο: Ωρολόγιο πρόγραμμα, 3 Ιουλίου 1868.

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20. Ελληνικό Σχολείο: Μαθητολόγιο σχολ. έτους 1868-69.

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21. Γυμνάσιο, 1868: ...Άλλως ο υπουργός δημοσίας εκπαιδεύσεως υποστηρίζει την αταξίαν!

ΟΟΓϊ

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22. Ελληνικό Σχολείο: Έκδοση τίτλων σχολ. έτους 1867-68.

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23. Γυμνάσιο: Μαθητολόγιο σχολ. έτους 1867-68.

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24. Γυμνάσιο: Έκθεση περί της διδαχθείσης όλης των Μαθηματικών, σχολ. έτος 1891-92.

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25. Γυμνάσιο: Έκθεση περί της διδαχθείσης ύλης φιλολογικών μαθημάτων, σχολ. έτος 1890-91.

p. 373
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    3. Δάσκαλοι και μαθητές Ελληνικού Σχολείου (τέλη 19ου αι.)

    4. Καθηγητές και μαθητές του Γυμνασίου το 1900 μπροστά στο κτίριο του